Diseases

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Description of Medical Condition Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterized primarily by profound fatigue, in association with multiple systemic and neuropsychiatric symptoms, lasting at least 6 months. The fatigue must have a new or definite onset (i.e., not lifelong), is not relieved by rest, and results in a substantial reduction in previous activities (occupation, education, social, and personal). System(s) affected: Endocrine/Metabolic, Musculoskeietal Genetics: N/A Incidence/Prevalence in USA: 10/100,000 Predominant age: Young adult Predominant sex: Female > Male (slightly) Medical Symptoms and Signs of Disease • Fatigue (100%) • Ability to date onset of illness (100%) • Unexplained general muscle weakness (90%) • Arthralgias (90%) • Forgetfulness (90%) • Inability to concentrate …

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Chickenpox

Description of Medical Condition A common, highly contagious, childhood exanthem characterized by the development of typical crops of vesicles on the skin and mucous membranes. • The virus is spread by respiratory droplets or direct contact with vesicles or indirectly through freshly soiled articles • Outbreaks tend to occur from January to May • The usual incubation period is 14-16 days (range 11-21). Patients are infectious from approximately 48 hours before appearance of the rash until the final lesions have crusted. Most people acquire chickenpox during childhood and develop long immunity. System(s) affected: Skin/Exocrine, Nervous Genetics: No known genetic pattern Incidence/Prevalence in USA: Common Predominant age: Peak incidence 5-9 years, but …

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Babesiosis

Description of Medical Condition • Babesiosis is a worldwide tick-borne hemolytic disease that is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia • Babesiosis has rarely been reported outside the US. Sporadic cases have been reported from a number of countries including France, Italy, the former Yugoslavia. United Kingdom, Ireland, the former Soviet Union and Mexico. In the US, infections have been reported from many states but the most endemic areas are the islands off the coast of Massachusetts (including Nan-tucket and Martha’s Vineyard) and New York (including eastern and south central Long Island, Shelter Island and Fire Island) and in Connecticut. In these areas, asymptomatic human infection seems to …

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Condyloma Acuminata

Description of Medical Condition Condyloma acuminata are soft skin colored, fleshy warts that are caused by the HPV (human papilloma virus). There are now > 100 known types of HPV and types 6, 11,16,18, 31, 33, 35 have been associated with condyloma acuminata. The disease is highly contagious, can appear singly or in groups, small or large. They appear in the vagina, on the cervix, around the external genitalia and rectum, in the urethra, anus, also conjunctival, nasal, oral and laryngeal warts and occasionally, the throat. The incubation period may be from 1-6 months. System(s) affected: Skin/Exocrine, Reproductive Genetics: N/A Incidence/Prevalence in USA: • Most common viral sexually transmitted disease in …

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Infectious disorders

Infectious diseases comprise those illnesses that are caused by microorganisms or their products. Clinical manifestations of infection occur only when sufficient tissue injury has been inflicted directly by microbial products (e.g., endotoxins and exotoxins), or indirectly by host responses (e.g., cytokines and hydrolytic enzymes released by polymorphonuclear leukocytes). Despite the extraordinary recent advances that have occurred in therapeutics for infectious diseases, a number of basic principles should be followed to prescribe antimicrobials and vaccines is an optimal manner. This chapter addresses the broader issues of treating infectious diseases and provides a number of practical clinical examples to demonstrate rational therapeutics. A rational therapeutic strategy in the management of proved or suspected …

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Epidemiologic and virulence factors in infectious diseases

Epidemiologic considerations Before appropriate therapy can be given for an infectious disease, consideration of epidemiologic factors is essential. This section does not fully discuss the epidemiology (the determinants, occurrence, distribution, and control of health and disease) of infectious diseases. However, a number of basic principles and historical points are worth emphasizing. Basic principles of transmission. An infectious disease results from the interaction between an infectious agent and a susceptible host. The agent may originate from a source external to the host (exogenous infection), or, because of changes in the agent–host relationship, a normally occurring, usually innocuous, microbial agent on skin or mucosal surfaces can produce disease (endogenous infection). The relationship among …

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Pediatric Infectious Disease

Drugs mentioned: amoxicillin-clavulanate (Augmentin / SmithKline Beecham) cefaclor (Ceclor / Lilly) cefuroxime (Zinacef / Glaxo) ribavirin (Virazole / ICN) Toxic Shock in Children Toxic shock is an acute disease characterized by fever, mucous membrane hyperemia, subcutaneous edema, desquamating erythroderma, hypotension, and multisystem organ involvement. A decade ago it was widely described as an illness affecting young women, associated with vaginal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus and the use of tampons. Subsequent studies demonstrated that S. aureus produces several related enterotoxins — including toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) — that are thought to cause the disorder by activating host inflammatory responses and by triggering the release of cytokines. Not all cases of toxic …

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