Central Nervous System Infections

Bell Palsy

ContentsDescription of Medical ConditionMedical Symptoms and Signs of DiseaseWhat Causes Disease?Risk FactorsDiagnosis of DiseaseDifferential DiagnosisLaboratoryPathological FindingsSpecial TestsImagingDiagnostic ProceduresTreatment (Medical Therapy)Appropriate Health CareGeneral MeasuresSurgical MeasuresActivityDietPatient EducationMedications (Drugs, Medicines)Drug(s) of ChoiceAlternative DrugsPatient MonitoringPrevention / AvoidancePossible ComplicationsExpected Course / PrognosisMiscellaneousAssociated ConditionsAge-Related FactorsPregnancySynonymsInternational Classification of DiseasesSee AlsoBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCDescription of Medical Condition Paralysis or weakness of the muscles supplied by the facial nerve, typically unilaterally, due to inflammation and swelling of the facial nerve within the facial canal • Bell palsy: Idiopathic • Ramsay Hunt syndrome: Bell palsy associated with vesicles within the outer ear canal or behind the ear. due to herpes zoster infection …

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Assessment of Fever

ContentsBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTC Relevant Evaluation Criteria Scenario/Model Outcome Information Gathering 1. Gather essential information about the patient’s symptoms, including: a. description of symptom(s) (i.e., nature, onset, duration, severity, associated symptoms) Child daycare provider reported to parents that their daughter has felt warm and is not eating well, although she continues to play with the other children. They took an oral temperature, which was 101.4°F. They did not notice any other symptoms other than a slight runny nose. b. description of any factors that seem to precipitate, exacerbate, and/or relieve the patient’s symptom(s) The parents have not tried anything up to this …

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Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections

Potential Severity Can be life-threatening. Often prolong hospital stay, and can be complicated by metastatic lesions and bacterial endocarditis. Case 2 A 53-year-old white woman was admitted to the hospital with complaints of severe shaking during infusion of her hyperalimentation solution. She had been receiving intravenous hyperalimentation for 16years for a severe dumping syndrome that prevented eating by mouth. She had had multiple complications from her …

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Myocarditis

ContentsPotential Severity :Causes and PathogenesisClinical Manifestations, Diagnosis, and TreatmentKey PointsAbout MyocarditisBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCPotential Severity : Fulminant myocarditis can be fatal or lead to chronic congestive heart failure. Most cases are self-limiting and are followed by full recovery The true incidence of myocarditis (inflammation of the heart) is unknown, because most cases are asymptomatic. It has been estimated that 1% to 5% of systemic viral illnesses have myocardial involvement. Young males are at higher risk for serious myocarditis, as are pregnant women, neonates, and immunocompromised patients. Causes and Pathogenesis Viruses are a major cause of myocarditis, and specific causation has been identified …

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Central Nervous System Infections

ContentsPotential SeverityMeningitisEncephalitisCentral Nervous System AbscessIntracranial Epidural And Subdural AbscessSpinal Epidural  AbscessPotential SeverityKey PointsAbout Spinal Epidural AbscessBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCPotential Severity Often life-threatening, infections of the central nervous system are infectious disease emergencies. They require immediate treatment. Central nervous system  infections are fortunately rare, but they are extremely serious. The cerebral cortex and spinal cord are confined within the restricted boundaries of the skull and boney spinal canal. Inflammation and edema therefore have devastating consequences, often leading to tissue infarction that in turn results in permanent neurologic sequelae or death. To understand the pathogenesis and clinical consequences of Central nervous system infections, a …

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Meningitis

Bacterial Meningitis Bacterial meningitis remains one of the most feared and dangerous infectious diseases that a physician can encounter. This form of meningitis constitutes a true infectious disease emergency. It is important that the physician quickly make the …

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Encephalitis

ContentsPotential SeverityViral EncephalitisCase 3Key PointsAbout Viral EncephalitisBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTC Potential Severity An acute and severe illness associated with a high mortality. Viral Encephalitis Case 3 A 74-year-old white man with a history of chronic steroid use (10 mg prednisone daily) and stage I chronic lymphocytic leukemia presented at the emergency room with confusion and fever. Four days before admission, he complained of being increasingly tired. Two days before admission, he became increasingly lethargic, sleeping on floor. His wife had difficulty rousing him, and she noted that he was no longer interested in any activity. The morning of admission, he displayed bizarre …

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Central Nervous System Abscess

Contents Brain AbscessPotential SeverityCase 4Key PointsAbout the Clinical Manifestations of Brain AbscessPrevalence and PathogenesisDirect SpreadKey PointsAbout the Pathogenesis of Brain AbscessHematogenous SpreadMicrobiologyImmunocompromised HostKey PointsAbout the Causes of Brain AbscessImmigrantsClinical Symptoms and SignsDiagnosisComputed Tomography ScanMagnetic Resonance ImagingLumbar punctureTreatmentAntibioticsKey PointsAbout the Diagnosis of Brain AbscessSurgeryGlucocorticoidsKey PointsAbout the Treatment and Outcome of Brain AbscessPrognosis and OutcomeBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTC Brain Abscess Potential Severity Often subacute in onset, but may be life-threatening if improperly managed. Early neurosurgical consultation is of critical importance. Case 4 A 19-year-old white man noted the gradual onset of severe left frontal headache. The headache was sharp and constant, interfered with sleep, …

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Central Nervous System Infections

Definition Central nervous system infections include a wide variety of clinical conditions and etiologies: meningitis, meningoencephalitis, encephalitis, brain and meningeal abscesses, and shunt infections. The focus of this chapter is meningitis. Pathophysiology Infections are the result of hematogenous spread from a primary infection site, seeding from a parameningeal focus, reactivation from a latent site, trauma, or congenital defects in the central nervous system. central nervous system infections may be caused by a variety of …

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Clinical presentation

ContentsGeneralSigns and symptomsDifferential signs and symptomsLaboratory testsOther diagnostic testsDesired outcomeBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTC The clinical signs and symptoms of meningitis are variable (See Table Mean Values of the Components of Normal and Abnormal Cerebrospinal Fluid). General Clinical presentation varies with age, and generally, the younger the patient, the more atypical and the less pronounced is the clinical picture. TABLE. Mean Values of the Components of Normal and Abnormal Cerebrospinal Fluid Type Normal Bacterial Viral Fungal Tuberculosis white blood cell (cells/mm3) <5 1000-5000 100-1000 40-400 100-500 Differential (%) >90a ≥80 polymorphonuclear neutrophils 50b,c >50b >80b,c Protein (mg/dL) <50 100-500 30-150 40-150 ≤40-150 Glucose …

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